What better place to start naming the names of great persons through history that has stand out as shining examples of a Luciferian (although he may not have known himself) than Galileo Galilei, father of modern science who gained knowledge from the stars.

Galileo worked out the scientific method of observing the universe by making lenses that would magnify the skies. Finding clear glass in the 16th century is not easy, and it is perhaps no coincidence that we find Galileo in Venice, just about the only place on earth where the local artisans had worked out a way to create crystal clear glass. From a glass bottle reheated and unfolded, Galileo would cut and grind a piece of glass into a convex lens, that would be put in an apparatus later known as a telescope.

The military use of this hi-tech tool of the time would also be apparant and grant Galileo friends in high places. Ships could be seen arriving in the horizon two hours before the naked eye. But Galileo lifted his telescopes higher, and met Jupiter in 1610, discovering it had moons. Suddenly – a radical idea emerged. Perhaps the teachings of the ancient Egyptians, and even Aristotle was somehow flawed?

I should disclose and publish to the world the occasion of discovering and observing four Planets, never seen from the beginning of the world up to our own times, their positions, and the observations made during the last two months about their movements and their changes of magnitude; and I summon all astronomers to apply themselves to examine and determine their periodic times, which it has not been permitted me to achieve up to this day . . . On the 7th day of January in the present year, 1610, in the first hour of the following night, when I was viewing the constellations of the heavons through a telescope, the planet Jupiter presented itself to my view, and as I had prepared for myself a very excellent instrument, I noticed a circumstance which I had never been able to notice before, namely that three little stars, small but very bright, were near the planet; and although I believed them to belong to a number of the fixed stars, yet they made me somewhat wonder, because they seemed to be arranged exactly in a straight line, parallel to the ecliptic, and to be brighter than the rest of the stars, equal to them in magnitude . . .When on January 8th, led by some fatality, I turned again to look at the same part of the heavens, I found a very different state of things, for there were three little stars all west of Jupiter, and nearer together than on the previous night.

I therefore concluded, and decided unhesitatingly, that there are three stars in the heavens moving about Jupiter, as Venus and Mercury around the Sun; which was at length established as clear as daylight by numerous other subsequent observations. These observations also established that there are not only three, but four, erratic sidereal bodies performing their revolutions around Jupiter.

On March 13th in 1610 he published a 24 page document reporting his observations – the earth was not the only body to have moons. The book was called Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger).

The book created an immediate sensation, its 500 copies sold out immediately.

While many Catholic mathematicians accepted that Galileo’s logic was correct, others argued that it contradicted biblical teaching.

Galileo accepted that the bible could not be wrong, suggesting that instead the interpretations could be in error. He went so far as to offer his own interpretations of key biblical verses, stepping on the toes of the theologians. He was accused of heresy and – although found not guilty he – had to promise not to teach the heliocentric view.

He remained silent, but actively thinking, for 16 years.

Originally called “On the flux and reflux of tides” in which he argued that the moon did not influence tides on earth, in 1632 published as “Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican” available to the reader’s own dissemination at the end of this post.

The style was to present the arguments in the form of a Platonic dialogue between 3 characters:

  • SALVIATI – An intellectual who seems to speak for Galileo
  • SAGREDO – A wealthy nobleman who is seeking truth
  • SIMPLICIO – An Aristotelian philosopher who puts up ineffectual arguments for Salviati to knock down (Simplicio is a thinly disguised representation of the church hierarchy)

The book was a best seller, but not so popular with the Vatican. Under pressure from clerics, Pope Urban VIII ordered Galileo to appear before the Holy Inquisition for the crime of teaching the heliocentric theory, despite having been ordered not to.

Threatened with torture, 68 years old and unwell, he publicly acknowledged that he had been wrong about the heliocentric view. However after his confession he is rumoured to have whispered “and yet it moves”. Galileo was placed under house arrest and the “Dialogue” was quickly added to Index of Forbidden Books. He died in 1642. Newton was born the same year.

The Dialogue was dropped from the Index of Prohibited Books in 1835.

The Catholic Church acknowledged the injustice done to Galileo in 1979.

In 1992, Pope John Paul II accepted that errors had been made by the theologians at the time, he declared Galileo’s case closed. He did not admit that the church had been wrong when it sentenced Galileo however.

Download (PDF):  Galileo Galilei – Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632) – Translated by Drake (1953) – Abridged by S. E. Sciortino

(Or, buy the same book as a hardcopy from Amazon)

Footnotes:

*) Galileo was not the first one to make a telescope. Lenses of suitable quality had been produced since ca. 1530.